How Impressionism Originated
The emergence of Impressionism is not accidental, it is the 19th century the inevitable trend of the development of French art. Since the Renaissance until the middle of the l9th century, the artist mainly explored the plastic arts, such as sketches and anatomical perspective and other issues, only the color of the object as the inherent color of light and shade changes. Although there have been Delacroix, Constan Boer and others to explore the color, but after all, only tentative. David, Angell, Courbet, and so on turn the sketching relationship to the development of oil painting is difficult to go beyond the peak, so that 19th century artists have to think about painting a new way out, so they began to seek a breakthrough in color.
The 19th century photography, the art of painting is a serious challenge, prompting the artist to find a new way out. The first photo produced in the 1820s, to 60 years, photography has been a great development. In the past, painting has assumed the important task of recording the image, with the popularity of photography, painting art has lost its former advantage, when some artists even think that no development prospects. This sense of crisis prompted the artist to abandon the photo of the classical painting, instead of looking for new ways of painting color.
At that time the capitalist countries are expanding to the East, Oriental art and culture began to show in front of Westerners. Japanese prints, Chinese silk and other oriental art, its unique decorative, flat, perspective and simple bright colors constitute a glowing new world of art, the traditional artists from the West to start a new pursuit, but also a promotion and Enlightenment. Impressionism in this historical conditions have occurred.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, despite the emergence of daring to confront the traditional realism art, but the official academy forces are still very strong. 1863 Salon exhibition in the official school of the control, there are more than 4,000 pieces of unsuccessful works, causing widespread social discontent. Napoleon III to stabilize the situation, personally intervene in this matter, then held a "unsuccessful Sharon Show." In this exhibition, Manet's "lunch on the grass" caused controversy, become a sensational work, although some people have been attacked, but also by a group of young artists and writers of appreciation.
Since then, a group of artists unwilling to be bound by traditional art, innovative young artists, often gathered in the Boulevard in Paris Gaerpowa Café to talk about art and literature, to explore new ideas, a heated debate . These people to the classical painter Gelaier studio four students Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Bachiyi as the core, after they made Pissarro, Cezanne and female painter Morisot et al, the last horse Nye and Degas also joined them, in addition to the writer Zola et al. Manet in which the older, art has been a certain achievement, which was revered as the spiritual leader of these painters.
In addition to exploring the art of these artists, but also often to the outdoor painting, looking for a new way to describe the performance of light color changes. They chose Courbet's realistic path to portray the natural landscape and real life they saw with their own eyes. These Impressionist painters were also influenced by the Barbizon school of thought, interacting closely with them, learning their courage out of the studio, facing the natural sketches, and receiving much of the advice from the Barbizon School of Academyism. The young Impressionist painters are also inspired and inspired by Constable and Turner, whose vibrant ambience and richness of color have benefited from the English painters, and in particular the mention of Boudin and Joan Kan The direct influence of the painter on impressionism. Respectively. E. Boudin is Claude Monet's enlightener, he insisted on outdoor painting, works full of light and the atmosphere of trembling, especially the description of the sky color is vivid. J. B. JongKind is a Dutch painter who uses watercolors for outdoor painting and then works as a canvas. His paintings retain the vividness and color of the painting. He and Bodin, Monet often together with the painting, Boudin and Qiongkan can be said to be the direct Impressionist enlightenment.
70 years after the Franco-Prussian War, the Impressionist painters returned to the Baillieuer Boulevard Gerbova coffee party, so some people call them "Batyol Group." In fact, they are just a group of young artists who are close to each other and work together to discuss art. They have no unified thinking and no fixed organization or program. From the 60's to 70's after 10 years of exploration, and finally formed a more mature new style. In 1874, these artists co-organized the first joint exhibition entitled "Unnamed Painters, Sculptors and Printmakers Association Exhibition", with 29 artists participating in the exhibition, 160 pieces of works, the exhibition has aroused great social repercussions .
Painter Monet's a sea view, "sunrise · impression" by "noise" magazine journalist Louis Le Luowa author irony. Entitled "Impressionist Exhibition", he in the text by the classical painter's mouth, these works attacked. He said that the "sunrise · impression" vague and uncomfortable in front of people, that the author's ignorance and beauty and the real negative, that is, wallpaper paste than the piece of sea view is more complete, saying that these beautiful The color of the splash of mud has become fashionable stuff. After his visit to the exhibition, he said that the painting was like painting a canvas in a handgun and then signing a name. Some people ridiculed that these paintings are painted on the color palette scraped into the works.
The exhibition was held two weeks before the official Salon exhibition, attracting many viewers. The new style of display works makes people feel fresh, and difficult to accept immediately, sarcastic far more than praise. After the exhibition, the ironic "impressionism" is accepted by these painters, and has been used since. In this way, the universally recognized new painting - Impressionism "was born.
From 1874 to 1886, Impressionist painters held a total of eight exhibitions, exhibitors are not entirely limited to members of the school of painting, the members of the school are not all exhibitors. Boudin only participated in the first exhibition, the United States of America female artist Cassart only to participate in the exhibition for the third time, and Manet has been looking forward to official recognition, busy to participate in the official Salon exhibition and never participated in the Impressionist exhibition, Luo one exhibition each time.
Impressionism in 1886, after the last joint exhibition, because of differences in artistic point of view, we have less and less in common, personal characteristics become more prominent, and later did not hold a joint exhibition, Impressionism movement is nearing completion. After that, Impressionism was replaced by the newer Neo-Impressionism and Post-Impressionism.